Pilot Guidelines - Visual Flight Rules (VFR)


For a VFR flight in real life, you do not have to file a flight plan. In our virtual world however, a flight plan should always be filed (users are automatically disconnected after a period of time if flying without a flight plan).

VFR stands for Visual Flight Rules. The pilot must fly and navigate with visual reference to the surface. Due to this, there are certain weather criteria that must be met for a VFR flight to take place.

VFR flights are not permitted in Class A airspace, so there are no criteria.

There is no Class B airspace within the IVAO, so we will not explain the criteria.

VFR Flight in Class C, Class D and Class E airspace:

    At or above FL100:

        * 1,500 metres horizontally away from cloud
        * 1,000ft vertically away from cloud
        * In flight visibility of at least 8km

    Below FL100:

        * 1,500 metres horizontally away from cloud
        * 1,000ft vertically away from cloud
        * In flight visibility of at least 5km

    An aircraft is deemed to have complied with the below FL100 restrictions if the aircraft is not a helicopter and:

        * it flies at or below 3,000ft AMSL
        * it flies at a speed which is 140KIAS or less
        * remains clear of cloud, with the surface in sight and an in flight visibility of at least 5km

    If it is a helicopter, it is deemed to have complied with the below FL100 restrictions if:

        * it flies at or below 3,000ft AMSL
        * it remains clear of cloud, with the surface in sight and an in flight visibility of at least 1,500 metres

The following is a transcript of a VFR flight, VHAUZ, a Cessna 172 from Archerfield to Sunshine Coast via the FIR:

    VHAUZ:   Archerfield Tower, Good morning, VHAUZ, A Cessna 172 with Zulu 1004, request taxi for flight to Sunshine Coast.

    YBAF_TWR: VHAUZ, Archerfield Tower, good morning, taxi to holding point B1 runway 28R via H, Q1004.

    VHAUZ: Taxi to holding point B1 runway 28R via H, Q1004, VUZ. (Note: after both pilot and controller have confirmed full callsign, abbreviated callsign can be used)

    (The aircraft may request the QFE, make sure you have calculated it.)

    YBAF_TWR: VUZ, Correct, have your clearance.

    VHAUZ: Ready to copy, VUZ.

    YBAF_TWR: VHAUZ, Cleared to the northern zone boundary, Route Indooroopilly Bridge, Not above altitude 1,500ft, VFR, squawk 1204.

    VHAUZ: Cleared to the northern zone boundary, Route Indooroopilly Bridge, Not above altitude 1,500ft, VFR, squawk 1204, VHAUZ.

    YBAF_TWR: VUZ, Correct, call ready for departure.

    VHAUZ: Wilco, VUZ.

There are 2 ways to depart a control zone; A random route with a direction or a specified route. A random route may be something as simple as "Cleared to the southern zone boundary with a left turn out". In this case, the aircraft would turn left after departure and fly towards the southern zone boundary.

A specified route takes an aircraft from the airfield, along a route (which usually follows geographical features such as roads, railways and rivers) to a Visual Reference Point at the edge of the zone boundary.

In the above example, VHAUZ has been cleared to leave the Archerfield Control Zone via the route "Indooroopilly Bridge". If you look at the CTR and CTA chart for Archerfield, you can see that the Indooroopilly Bridge route will take the aircraft along the Ipswich Railway line to the Indooroopilly Bridge VRP. At that point, the aircraft will leave controlled airspace into the open FIR.

Our flight continues:

    VHAUZ: Archerfield Tower, VUZ holding point B1 runway 28R, ready for departure.

    YBAF_TWR: VUZ, via B1, line up runway 28R.

    VHAUZ: Line up runway 28R, VUZ.

    YBAF_TWR:  VUZ, right turn out, runway 28R, cleared for take-off, surface wind 240 degrees 12 knots.

    VHAUZ: right turn out, cleared for take-off, VUZ.

    (Always specify the direction of turn after departure for a VFR flight.)

    YBAF_TWR:  VUZ, Contact Brisbane Approach, 124.700.

    VHAUZ: Brisbane Approach, 124.700, VUZ.

    ---

    VHAUZ: Brisbane Approach, Good morning, VHAUZ not above altitude 1500ft, routing Indooroopilly Bridge.

    YBBN_APP: VHAUZ, Brisbane Approach, G'day, clearance now not above altitude 2500ft, VFR, report Indooroopilly Bridge.

    VHAUZ: Not above altitude 2500ft, will report at Indooroopilly Bridge, VUZ

    --

    VHAUZ:  VUZ approaching Indooroopilly Bridge.

    YBBN_APP: VUZ, roger, leave the zone to the north.

    VHAUZ:  Leave the zone to the north, VUZ.

    VHAUZ: VUZ crossing the northern zone boundary.

    YBBN_APP: VUZ, roger, squawk 1200, service terminates.

    VHAUZ: Squawk 1200, service terminated, VUZ.

    YBBN_APP: VUZ, Flight Information is available with Brisbane Radar, 125.700, report leaving the frequency.

    VHAUZ: 125.700, leaving the frequency, VUZ.

    (Brisbane Radar provide an enroute flight information service. More details on this can be found under Standard Procedures > FIS.)

    ---

    VHAUZ: Brisbane Radar, G'day, VHAUZ.

    YBBN_CTR: VHAUZ, Brisbane Radar, pass your details.

    VHAUZ: VHAUZ, is a Cessna 172, Archerfield to Redcliffe, not above altitude 2500ft, VFR, Currently overhead Samford tracking north bound.

    YBBN_CTR: VHAUZ, Brisbane Radar, roger, Flight Information Service, Brisbane is 1014.

    CHAUZ: Flight Information service, 1014, VUZ.

    YBBN_CTR: VUZ, Traffic Information, a Twin Squirrel last known to be operating in the vicinity of Mount Samson, not above altitude 2000ft, VFR.

    VHAUZ: Roger, we will keep a look out, VUZ

    ---

    VHAUZ: Brisbane Radar, VUZ request weather information for Redcliffe.

    YBBN_CTR: VUZ, Roger, latest weather is Echo timed 2230Z, would you like me to read it to you?

    VHAUZ: Affirm, VUZ.

    YBBN_CTR: VUZ, Roger, Information Echo, timed 2230Z. Surface wind 300 degrees 8 knots, visibility greater than 10 kilometres. Clouds few at 5000ft. Temperature plus 23, dewpoint plus 17, QNH1014, landing and departing runway 36.

    VHAUZ: QNH 1014, runway 36, VUZ.

    VHAUZ: Brisbane Radar, VUZ switching to Sunshine Coast, 129.000.

    YBBN_CTR: VUZ, Roger, Service Terminated, goodbye.

    VHAUZ: Service Terminated, VUZ.

    ---

    VHAUZ: Sunshine Approach, VHAUZ.

    YBSU_APP: VHAUZ, Sunshine Approach, pass your message.

    VHAUZ: VHAUZ is a Cessna 172, inbound to Sunshine Coast. Current position is 18 miles East of Sunshine Coast, 2000ft, request pattern entry instructions.

    YBSU_APP: VHAUZ, roger, enter the left hand downwind for runway 28, not above altitude 1,500ft QNH1014, report downwind.

    VHAUZ: Enter Left hand downwind runway 36, not above altitude 1500ft, QNH1014, will report downwind, VUZ.

    ---

    VHAUZ: VUZ, Downwind, runway 36.

   YBSU_APP: VUZ, Roger, you are Number 2 to a Dash 8 on a 4 mile final. Orbit at the end of the downwind leg as necessary, report final.

    VHAUZ: Traffic in sight, will report final, VUZ.

    VHAUZ: VUZ, Final runway 36.

    YBSU_APP: VUZ, Roger, contact Sunshine Tower, 124.400.

    VHAUZ: 124.400, VUZ.

    ---

    VHAUZ: Sunshine Tower, VHAUZ, Final runway 36 to land.

   YBSU_TWR: VHAUZ, Sunshine Tower, runway 36, cleared to land. Surface wind 300 degrees, 8 knots.

    VHAUZ: Cleared to land, VUZ.

    --

   YBSU_TWR: VUZ, Taxi GA Apron via Delta.

    VHAUZ: GA Apron, via Delta, VUZ.

     

The following is a transcript of a VFR flight, VHAUZ, a Cessna 172 remaining in the circuit at Archerfield:

    VHAUZ: Archerfield, good morning, VHAUZ, A Cessna 172 with Zulu 1004, request taxi for circuits.

    YBAF_TWR: VHAUZ, Archerfield, G'day, taxi to holding point B1 runway 28R via H, Q1004.

    VHAUZ: Taxi to holding point B1 runway 28R via H, Q1004, VUZ.

    (The aircraft may request the QFE, make sure you have calculated it.)

    YBAF_TWR: VUZ, Correct, have your clearance.

    VHAUZ: Ready to copy, VUZ.

    YBAF_TWR: VHAUZ, Circuits to the south, not above altitude 1500ft, squawk 1202.

    VHAUZ: Circuits to the south, not above altitude 1500ft, squawk 1202, VUZ.

    YBAF_TWR: VUZ, Correct, call ready for departure.

    VHAUZ: Wilco, VUZ

    ---

    VHAUZ: Archerfield Tower, VUZ holding point B1 runway 28R, ready for departure.

    YBAF_TWR: VUZ, via B1, line up runway 28R.

    VHAUZ: Line up runway 28R, VUZ.

    YBAF_TWR: VUZ, left turn out, runway 28R, cleared for take-off, surface wind 240 degrees 12 knots.

    VHAUZ: left turn out, cleared for take-off, VUZ.

    ---

    VHAUZ: VUZ, left hand downwind runway 28R, for touch and go.

    YBAF_TWR: VUZ, Roger, number one runway 28R, report final.

    VHAUZ: Report final, VUZ.

    ---

    VHAUZ: VUZ, Finals.

    YBAF_TWR: VUZ, Roger, runway 28R, cleared touch and go, surface wind 230 degrees 8 knots.

    VHAUZ: Cleared touch and go, VUZ.

    ---

    VHAUZ: VUZ, left hand downwind runway 28R, for a full stop.

    YBAF_TWR: VUZ, roger, you are number 2 to a Cessna 182 on a 3 mile final, orbit at the end of the downwind leg as necessary, report final.

    VHAUZ: Traffic in sight, will call final, VUZ.

    ---

    VHAUZ: VUZ, Final runway 28R.

    YBAF_TWR: VUZ, roger, runway 28R, cleared to land. Surface wind 260 degrees 6 knots.

    VHAUZ: Cleared to land, VUZ.

    ---

    YBAF_TWR: VUZ, taxi to the norther apron via D.

    VHAUZ: Northern apron via D, VUZ.
 

Pilot Guidelines - Instrument Flight Rules (IFR)


    * In real life you should file a flight plan before starting an IFR flight
    * There is no altitude limit to fly IFR
    * IFR means that you fly and navigate to your destination by means of Navigational aids such as VOR beacons, NDB Beacons and Intersections.
    * If your flight commences outside controlled airspace (see airway charts) you do not need clearance to operate, however you must request an information service from an ATC unit and remain outside controlled airspace until cleared to enter.

The following is a transcript of an IFR flight, AUZ2032, from Sydney (YSSY) to Melbourne (YMML), with full ATC along the way:

    AUZ2032: Sydney Delivery, AUZ2032, Boeing 737-800, bay 22 with information GOLF 1014, request IFR Clearance to Melbourne

    YSSY_DEL: AUZ2032, good evening, cleared Melbourne via DEBOS, maintain 6000ft, CURFEW4 departure, runway 16R, Squawk 2002, departure frequency 123.000.

    AUZ2032:  cleared Melbourne via DEBOS, maintain 6000ft, CURFEW4 departure, runway 16R, Squawk 2002, departure frequency 123.000, AUZ2032.

    YSSY_DEL: AUZ2032, read back correct, contact ground on 126.500 for pushback.

    AUZ2032: 126.5000 for pushback, AUZ2032.

    AUZ2032: Sydney Ground, AUZ2032, Bay 22, Requesting Pushback and startup.

    YSSY_GND: AUZ2032, Sydney Ground, Push and start approved.

    AUZ2032:  Push and start approved, AUZ2032.

    AUZ2032: AUZ2032, Request taxi.

    YSSY_GND: AUZ2032, taxi holding point B1, runway 16R, via B, QNH 1017.

    AUZ2032: Taxi holding point B1, runway 16R, via B, QNH 1017, AUZ2032

    ---
    AUZ2032: Sydney Ground, AUZ2032, holding B1.

    YSSY_GND: AUZ2032,  contact Sydney Tower, 124.700

    AUZ2032: Sydney Tower 124.700, AUZ2032.

    ---

    AUZ2032: Sydney Tower , AUZ2032 holding point B1

    YSSY_TWR:  AUZ2032, via M1, line up and wait runway 16R

    AUZ2032: Via B1, Line-up and wait runway 16R, AUZ2032

    YSSY_TWR: AUZ2032, surface wind 160 degrees, 6 knots, runway 16R,  cleared for take-off.

    AUZ2032: Runway 16R, cleared take-off, AUZ2032

    YSSY_TWR: AUZ2032, contact Sydney Departures on 123.000

    AUZ2032: Sydney Departures 123.000, AUZ2032

    ---

    AUZ2032: Sydney Departures, AUZ2032 passing 1500ft for 6000ft.

    YSSY_DEP: AUZ2032, Radar identified,  climb FL180

    AUZ2032: FL180, AUZ2032.

    YSSY_DEP: AUZ2032, contact Sydney Centre on 125.000

    AUZ2032: Sydney Centre on 125.000, AUZ2032

    ---

    AUZ2032: Sydney Centre, AUZ2032, FL180.
   
    YSSY_CTR: AUZ2032, G'day, climb FL320
   
    AUZ2032: FL320, AUZ2032
   
    YSSY_CTR: AUZ2032, report passing WOLBI

    AUZ2032: Wilco, AUZ2032.

    AUZ2032: Sydney Centre, AUZ2032, passing WOLBI.

    YSSY_CTR: AUZ2032, Roger, Contact Melbourne Centre on 123.800

    ------

    AUZ2032: Melbourne Centre on 123.800, AUZ2032.

    AUZ2032: Melbbourne Centre, AUZ2032, G'day, passing WOLBI, FL320.

    YMML_CTR: AUZ2032, G'day, expect ARBEY4 approach, runway 16, callback for decent.

    AUZ2032: Expecting ARBEY4 for ILS and independent visual approach, runway 16, will callback for decent, AUZ2032.

    AUZ2032: Melbourne Centre, AUZ2032, ready for decent.

    YMML_CTR: AUZ2032, decend FL120.

    AUZ2032: FL120, AUZ2032.

    YMML_CTR: AUZ2032, contact Melbourne Approach on 132.000

    AUZ2032, Melbourne Approach on 132.000, AUZ2032.

    ------

    AUZ2032: Melbourne Approach, G'day, AUZ2032 with information Juliet, passing CANTY, FL120.

    YMML_APP: AUZ2032, G'day, ARBEY4 approach for ILS runway 16, decend 8000ft, QNH 1015.

    AUZ2032: ARBEY4 approach, 8000ft, QNH 1015, AUZ2032.

    YMML_APP: AUZ2032, decend 3000ft.

    AUZ2032: 3000ft, AUZ2032.

    YMML_APP: AUZ2032, cleared to the ILS runway 16, report established.

    AUZ2032: Cleared to the ILS runway 16, will report established, AUZ2032.

    AUZ2032: Melbourne Approach, AUZ2032, established on the ILS runway 16.

    YMML_APP: AUZ2032, Roger, Contact Melbourne Tower on 120.500.

    AUZ2032: Melbourne Tower on 120.500, AUZ2032.

    -----

    AUZ2032, Melbourne Tower, AUZ2032, established on ILS runway 16.

    YMML_TWR: AUZ2032, continue approach runway 16.

    AUZ2032: Continue approach runway 16, AUZ2032.

    YMML_TWR: AUZ2032, wind 180 degrees 10 knots, runway 16, cleared to land.

    AUZ2032: Runway 16, cleared to land, AUZ2032.

   YMML_TWR: AUZ2032, contact Melbourne Ground 121.700

   AUZ2032: Melbourne Ground 121.700, AUZ2032.

    -----

    AUZ2032: Melbourne Ground, AUZ2032 vacated runway 16 via G

    YMML_GND: AUZ2032, taxi via golf to the bay.

    AUZ2032: Taxi via golf to the bay, AUZ2032.

     -----

     *** NOTE: Shut down of aircraft engines is at the pilots discretion.  Flight Plans are automatically closed. ***